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Alpha và omega là gì

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From Fanlore

Alpha/Beta/Omega or Alpha/Omega (occasionally Alpha/Beta Beta/Omega) is a kink trope wherein some people have defined biological roles based on a hierarchical system. The terms were borrowed from older behavior research on captive wolves that had been misappropriated by popular culture, but do not reflect current wolf behaviour research.[1] Fanworks using this trope may involve werewolf, knotting, or other animalistic elements, or the characters may be otherwise purely human.

The term is generally written with slashes (a/b/o). Many fans, particularly ones from Australia and New Zealand, are uncomfortable seeing the term without slashes because it is also an Australian slur for aboriginal people.[2][3][4]

Basic Elements

Alphas are able to impregnate Omegas. Alphas are often (but not always) “dominant” in some fashion (depending on the worldbuilding of the specific story). Male Alphas usually have a knot when aroused. In some works, female Alphas are also able to impregnate others; some will temporarily grow a penis to do so, or their vulva will permanently grow into one when they present.

Betas are subordinate to Alphas within the concept of a dominance hierarchy, but depending on the needs of the story, this element may not be included. Betas are often presented as having “normal” human anatomy, with none of the special attributes of Alphas or Omegas. They may be the peacemakers between Alphas and Omegas. Depending on the story they may be able to impregnate Omegas. In some fanworks Betas aren’t present and the trope is known as Alpha/Omega; in others they take the role and functions of Omegas and Omegas aren’t present.

Omegas can get pregnant and go into heat. They are generally lowest on the hierarchy (although in some fanworks omegas are rare and prized). Some mangas don’t have this hierarchy; their society is just like the actual human world. Male Omegas are self-lubricating and have the ability to become pregnant, sometimes referred to as being bred or mated. In some fanworks Omegas are the most fragile of the hierarchy, with frailer bodies and painful presentations. Male Omegas are especially subject to fertility issues, miscarriages, and difficult pregnancies.

Alpha and Omega lovers may form pair-bonds (often involving mating bites) with a special connection with telepathic or empathetic qualities. In some works paired Alphas may be jealous and possessive of their mate, while the Omega may become highly tied and needy. Omegas may go into heat and need to have sex; this may be the only time Omegas are fertile. The Alpha equivalent is known as a rut.

The ratio of alphas to betas to omegas within the population is sometimes mentioned in fanworks, but varies depending on the needs of the plot.

From these basic elements a wide variety of works can be constructed. Some A/B/O works are straight-up porn, some explore social justice issues, some turn the trope on its head and makes alphas rather than omegas the disenfranchised group, etc. A/B/O is mainly known as a fic trope, but fanart is possible.[5]

History

Although individual elements of the trope appeared much earlier, Alpha/Beta/Omega originated in Supernatural fandom with a few very specific AU kink meme prompts for the J2 RPF ship.

The trope was a natural extension of SPN’s popular werewolf and knotting kinks.[note 1] The concept of going into heat may also have been influenced by Dark Angel, where heat was canon and explored in the fic; there was likely overlap in the fandom due to Jensen Ackles being a cast member on both shows.

[6]

Anyway, for a while there, these fics were called Knotting AUs , which is how we know that Dark Angel was an influence, because there actually is a Blindfold fill where the author acknowledges that the ‘ J2 , animal traits, knotting’ fic they’ve written is a Dark Angel fusion .”

Another source of inspiration may have been the existence of bestiality fic featuring one actor‘s dogs. People wanted more knotting, but without the bestiality. The first A/B/O fic was posted to a livejournal community for bestiality, cfamiliaris.

The first kink meme prompt[6] was in May 2010 and has also been identified as the culprit responsible for the popularity of knotting in SPN fandom:

AU – Their world is just like ours…except…in their world there are two types of men. One is the alpha male, the other is the bitch male. Alpha males are like any ordinary guy with the exception of their cocks, they work just like dog cocks (the knot, tons of cum etc) The bitch male, is just an ordinary guy without the special cock.

I’d like to see Alpha male Jared, and Bitch male Jensen. Jensen is a snotty prude (think Lady from lady and the tramp) he may be a bitch male but he’s not just going to let anybody take a go at his sweet little ass…until he meets Jared…then prudey little Jensen turns cock slut for Jared. Bonus points for J2 being OTP, Jensen was a virgin before Jared, and now that they met each other, it’s for life.

Completely up to you if mating happens just anywhere like in the middle of the sidewalk, in a park etc or on a more private level.[7]

Completely up to you if mating happens just anywhere like in the middle of the sidewalk, in a park etc or on a more private level.

In response, tehdirtiestsock posted “I ain’t no lady, but you’d be the tramp” aka Tramp!Verse in July and August 2010.[8]

A similar prompt was posted to two different Supernatural anon memes in November 2010 and January 2011 and included the now standard alpha/beta/omega terminology:

[note 2]

There are three types of men, alpha males, beta males, and omega males. Alpha males are like any ordinary guy with the exception of their cocks, they work just like canines (the knot, tons of cum, strong breeders, etc) The beta male, is an ordinary guy without the special cock. Omega males are capable of child bearing and often called bitch males.

The prompt inspired several fills, including Heat (Between You and Me) by the_miss_lv (reposted in namespace 2010-11-28) and No Substitution by pianoforeplay (reposted 2011-01-27).

Trope Spread

The trope A/B/O spread so quickly through fandom culture beyond SPN and J2, that by 2013 Kristina Busse publishes “Pon Farr, Mpreg, Bones and the rise of the Omegaverse[9], in which she discusses the various fannish tropes that feed into omegaverse on world of fanfiction and consequently of literature.

A/B/O has also spread into some original fiction and other media, such as the Omegaverse Project series of doujin anthologies, which began in 2015 and is still ongoing, and BL game Omega Vampire. It became popular enough in romance fiction circles that in 2018 one author tried to claim that she had invented the het omegaverse subgenre, leading to the Omegaverse Litigation.[note 3]

F/F

A/B/O is a trope most often seen in m/m, but there is a small yet mighty tradition of it in f/f too…

[snipped]

Alphas correspond most closely to ideas about masculinity, and omegas about femininity, but where it gets really interesting is when this doesn’t match up. Male omegas, female alphas… with three “genera” that interact with and don’t correspond to different genders, you can get some really interesting and queer writing. You can also get reinforcing of some really not great stereotypes, with “alpha” used to just make one half of a same sex couple “the man” and the other half “the woman… [10]

Alphas correspond most closely to ideas about masculinity, and omegas about femininity, but where it gets really interesting is when this doesn’t match up. Male omegas, female alphas… with three “genera” that interact with and don’t correspond to different genders, you can get some really interesting and queer writing. You can also get reinforcing of some really not great stereotypes, with “alpha” used to just make one half of a same sex couple “the man” and the other half “the woman…

Non-Western Fandoms

A/B/O made its way into Japanese fandom around 2014 through both doujin and fanart featuring the trope on Pixiv.[11] As of 2019, A/B/O is such a popular trope in Japan that some stores have started creating displays solely populated with A/B/O content.[12] Sometime in late 2013, A/B/O was also introduced into Chinese BL circles and it’s now a relatively common trope used in both Chinese-language fanworks and fanworks about Chinese media (such as Guardian). Much like in Japanese fandom, A/B/O also features in Chinese original works like webnovels.[13] Most often, in both the case of Chinese and Japanese fans, they’re likely to call this trope “Omegaverse” rather than A/B/O. This is also the case with anime and manga fics featuring the trope.

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This trope has also made its way into the general fanfic universe, and the Alpha/Beta/Omega AU tag is used in many non-western fandoms as well. In 2013, EXO released the lead single Wolf which inspired EXO fandom writers to write Wolf AU, incorporating the theme of A/B/O in stories and becoming widely popular on Asianfanfics, the main website for k-pop RPF. EXO fandom popularized A/B/O fanfic in non-western fandoms. As of 2019, the third most popular fandom to feature A/B/O on the Archive of Our Own is the popular K-pop fandom BTS.[14] There are also other K-pop and J-pop bands represented. A/B/O is also popular in other types of non-western fandoms, and Omegaverse fic has become very popular in the Fire Emblem fandom in recent years, particularly in the Awakening and Fates subsections. It’s also extremely popular in the Yuri!!! On Ice and Haikyuu!! fandoms, as well as Boku no Hero Academia fandom. Both Yuri!!! On Ice and Haikyuu!! are in the top 10 fandoms represented on AO3.

A recent trend specifically in anime and manga fandoms is the introduction of a fourth gender, Enigma. This concept was borrowed from the yaoi manga Kanraku Alpha ~Enigma~ 4 verse, where an “Enigma” is a rare and unique gender that can make submit, even an Alpha.[15] Authors have added fourth genders before, usually named “Gamma” or something similar to keep with the theme of Greek letters, but Enigma is the first one to be fairly widespread with a set definition. It’s mainly popular in the Boku no Hero Academia fandom.

A/B/O has become increasingly popular in the Fire Emblem fandom, most notably in Fates and Three Houses.

Similarities with Other Tropes

The A/B/O trope contains elements of tropes that appeared in many earlier fan stories. It is perhaps the combination of these elements that makes A/B/O unique.

Among those elements are MPREG, going into heat, a hierarchical biology-based class/caste system, and knotting. Other tropes dealing with “a basic biology they cannot deny” include pon farr, the Sime~Gen universe, and some elements of Sentinel AU.

According to one commentator on

[16]

I always say it’s the class system based on biological characteristiques and knotting, though other nonnies have pointed out that knotting isn’t omnipresent in fic being written nowadays. Mpreg isn’t so much needed as the possibility of mpreg – and someone may write fic where alphas and omegas are biological dead ends and thus remove the possibility of mpreg and thus remove that possibility and I, personally, would still consider it a/b/o as long as they’d be a differentiated social group. The same rational goes for heats, as long as other biological markers are in place to account for the biological part of the genre. It’s the the articulation between those differences and the social [side] of things that is really the indispensable part.

According to one commentator on FFA , A/B/O fic can be distinguished from earlier tropes by its combination of biological changes with a culture structured around the differentiated biology:

A similar premise was used in Life from the Ashes in X-Files fandom in the 1990s. In that story, a virus biologically changes half of the male population into breeding partners who emit sex pheromones. Social differentiation between the biologically determined groups is not explicit, although by the end of the story, it is implied.

You also see many of the same elements in Indago,[note 4] a Harry/Draco story from the skyehawke archive published in 2005. Draco, Harry, and Snape turn out to be magical creatures called Indago, who are genderless but fall into categories of Supero and subicio, who are extremely similar to alphas and omegas, except for knotting. There is still scenting, heat, self-lubrication, mpreg, use of Supero pheromones to control or placate subicios, and Superos establish a dominance hierarchy and use the terms alpha and beta.

In March 2011, the NCIS Gibbs/DiNozzo Centaur-fic Heat was posted by Kathana-grey, positing many of the same concepts used in early Omegaverse works but without the same terminology. Omegaverse elements included the submissive character going into heat, differentiated male biology, self-lubrication, fights for dominance, specific body postures to show submission, marathon sex, and a culture structured around differentiated biology.

There are also similarities with BDSM AUs, where the characters are Doms (sometimes called “Tops”), Subs, or (sometimes) Switches. Helenish‘s Stargate Atlantis BDSM AU Take Clothes Off As Directed offers a dissection of this trope[note 5]—as a Sub in the military, John is subjected to harassment and insubordination. Parallels can be drawn between the role of Subs in society and that of women, LGBT/queer people or minorities to examine prejudice and discrimination caused by “designationism.”

The Ragnarok takes a similar approach of Alpha/Beta/Omega AUs in her Inception fic The Revolution Will Not Be Civilized, in which Arthur is heir to the ruler and keeps his Omega status a secret, as Omegas are not believed to be capable of serving in the military or making political decisions. In this universe, both Omegas and Alphas go into heat, and Alphas are more capable of restraint than Betas when faced with an Omega in heat. Female and male Alphas can impregnate male Omegas, and male Omegas need medical treatment to conceive.

Statistics

Graph by destinationtoast showing the increasing popularity of omegaverse on AO3 over time

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In August 2013, destinationtoast created an analysis of Alpha/Beta/Omega fics based on how these fics are tagged on AO3. The statistics look at how A/B/O fic fits into the general categories on AO3 including how much is slash, femslash, or het, how it is rated, and how much is marked with the archive warning. The stats also explore popularity over time, common co-occurring tags, the relationship with mpreg, which fandoms produce the most A/B/O, and popularity within fandoms.

Destinationtoast concluded[17] that:

Destinationtoast wrote another Omegaverse analysis post the following year: OMEGAVERSE IN THE SHERLOCK FANDOM, Archived version

Top Fandoms in 2020

AO3: top fandoms by count (2020)

AO3: top fandoms by percentage (2020)

Fandoms with the highest number of A/B/O works on the AO3 as of March 2020:[18]

Fandoms with more than 5K works with the highest percentage of A/B/O works on the AO3 as of March 2020:[18]

Other fandoms of note:

  • The 100 (“The 100 was (and is) a huge f/f fandom, and Blackrising’s popularity was instrumental in bringing A/B/O [there]. From The 100 fandom, the trope proliferated and got into other fandoms.” [19]
  • The Sentinel (related to the whole Sentinel/Guide thing)

Example Fanworks

Western Fandom Examples

Omegalomaniac by the_ragnarok Fandom: Bandom

Date: 2011

Length: 19,528

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Pete/Patrick . Exploration of people who don’t fit neatly into the A/B/O ternary.The Secretary by [saltandbyrne]Fandom: Supernatural

Date: 2012

Length: 7,194

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Written for a kink meme prompt. It’s a Terrible Life ‘verse. Dean Smith’s new secretary has been driving him crazy for weeks, with his natural obedience, perpetual sex hair and that goddamn scent. So when Castiel forgets to take his suppressants and goes into heat in the office, Dean just can’t freaking help himself anymore and bends Cas over his desk in a frenzied, possessive, semi-public claiming.

The Pumpkin Pie Started It by wiccanstiel

Fandom: Supernatural

Date: 2013

Length: 8,118

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Dean Winchester is your ordinary college student. He does his work, fixes cars, complains about being broke. Except when he visits the new campus bakery, he ends up getting more than the pie he asked for.

All You Ever Needed to Know About Knotting by KuriKuri Fandom: Teen Wolf

Date: 2015

Length: 4,781

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Derek had started reading the column by accident. Really, reading strangers’ questions about knotting and heat had never really appealed to him. However, at that point in time, he was a little desperate. And he was right: most of the questions submitted by anonymous readers didn’t appeal to him. The answers, though, did.

Into Your Hideaway by thepinupchemist

Fandom: Supernatural

Date: 2014

Length: 176,557

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Dean/Castiel . A fic exploring the darker side of an omegaverse society in which an omega Dean gets caught up in human trafficking. Mainly focused on the recovery after his escape, this fic also plays with non-traditional Alpha/Omega roles (namely with a soft, gentle alpha and a rougher omega).I Know You’re a Mistake I Won’t Regret by LunaCanisLupus_22Fandom: Hawaii Five-0

Date: 2016

Length: 40,931

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

“I don’t know how your omega at home lives with you,” Danny says, half serious, half mocking. It’s a throw away comment. Not meant for further thought but Steve stiffens considerably, hackles rising with the urge to attack and defend. Mostly because there is no omega waiting for him at home. And there’s no alpha Lieutenant Commander, Steve McGarrett , either.

Eyes Filled With Stars by Cute Negativity CloudFandom: All for the Game

Date: 2018

Medium: Fic

Status: Ongoing

A dieselpunk/omegaverse crossover, in which omega Nathaniel was raised as an akpha and presented late, and is now owned by alpha Prince Riko. He is given permission by Riko’s brother to join the military, and has to deal with the fallout from Riko.

Non-Western Fandom Examples

Blind Man’s Bluff by tiggeryumyum Fandom: Haikyuu!!

Date: 2017

Length: 84672

Medium: Fic

Status: WIP/Incomplete

Omegas Oikawa and Kageyama end up forming a reluctant bond after surviving a traumatic experience together. Alpha Iwaizumi tries to keep up.

White Blank Pages by AuthorInDistress

Fandom: Haikyuu!!

Date: 2017

Length: 168997

Medium: Fic

Status: WIP/Incomplete

It was common knowledge by now that, at birth, a mark would be placed upon the skin of each child in order to dictate their partner in life,

It first began in the late 1800s, or at least, that was the only time that they’d ever had documents that spoke about it, and back then it wasn’t rare to find that a bond was broken. The majority of the time, it was due to the death of the other half, sometimes before they’d even found each other which was somehow worse than knowing them and losing them afterwards.

But other times, a bond was broken cruelly because of the rejection of the other half of the soulmate. If that happened, it was said to be a pain that was unimaginable and many would prefer it if their bond had been broken through death than through this emotional torture.

But other times, a bond was broken cruelly because of the rejection of the other half of the soulmate. If that happened, it was said to be a pain that was unimaginable and many would prefer it if their bond had been broken through death than through this emotional torture.

All Eyes On Me by Aurum_Auri Fandom: Yuri!!! On Ice

Date: 2018

Length: 157,128

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Yuuri, under the username of Eros, is a size queen omega who most certainly does not have an obsession with fellow camboy and legendary silver-haired alpha Aria. Just like Phichit is not the most meddlesome roommate known to man.

this love will make you levitate series by persephoneggsy

Fandom: Yuri!!! On Ice

Date: 2017

Length: 75,839

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

A mafia/omegaverse au with intersex biology (meaning male Omegas and female Alphas have both sets of genitalia)

I Run From You by Morpheel

Fandom: Boku no Hero Academia

Date: 2018

Length: 20,540

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

What’s a rabbit hybrid to do when cornered within the clutches of a savage, hungry wolf? Anything he can to escape. (Though his heat makes this a much harder prospect than expected)

Drink While The Water Is Clean by JYNXXX Fandom: SEVENTEEN

Date: 2017

Length: 51,264

Medium: Fic

Status: WIP/Incomplete

Joshua’s life flipped in a moment, the second he was determined to be the King’s new consort. The Gods he once prayed to where tossed aside as he found a new God, the most beautiful God the world had to offer. His body which had never once been touched, was now constantly caressed by pairs of hands that tugged and tugged on him until he gave away everything they asked of him. Where once before he never thought of committing sin, he now indulged in it happily since it brought smiles to his lovers faces. Joshua’s life changed within a moment; the moment he made a deal with a devil in disguise.

Growl For Me by MitchMatchedSocks Fandom: EXO

Date: 2016

Length: 27283

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

As an alpha, Sehun isn’t supposed to submit to anyone. His own instincts make the very idea seem repulsive, but a conversation with Jongin makes him curious, and the arrival of a new alpha in the house has him craving things he shouldn’t.

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beta blockers by tintatalk Fandom: EXO

Date: 2017

Length: 38867

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

Chanyeol, a beta, finds himself in a hard place between two alphas. There’s Baekhyun, the best friend who doesn’t love him back. And there’s D.O, the BDSM dom he’s supposed to simply find pleasure in.

The Omega Revolution by PinkBTS Fandom: BTS

Date: 2017

Length: 158,027

Medium: Fic

Status: Complete

There are things Jimin loves. There are things Jimin hates. In the middle of a shifting world, Jeon Jeongguk manages to be both. Available in other languages.

Oh Darling, Stand By Me by Beatitudinem

Fandom: BTS

Date: 2017

Length: 164,611

Medium: Fic

Status: WIP/Incomplete

. He wasn’t . And he also wasn’t anywhere near ignorant.Kim Taehyung had never coped well when there was an angry alpha around, no matter that he wasn’t the object of their fury. Wisely choosing to keep his mouth shut, he ignored the flaring annoyance building up inside his chest at being treated like a frail and delicate porcelain doll who didn’t know any better, once again. He wasn’t. He wasn’t. And he also wasn’t anywhere near ignorant.

Fannish Resources

[20]

Omegaverse is really a fascinating fandom invention. 50% of it is totally problematic and reinforcing a lot of fucked up patriarchal, rape culture values. The other 50% is some of the most insightful, subversive social commentary I’ve ever read on gender identity/gender roles/queer oppression.

i really have no love for the fact that an au template that hinges on rape/dubcon fetishism and transphobia/cissexism out of ignorance happens to be The Most prevalent thing i have to see when i just want to jerk off[21]

honestly im so tired of how a/b/o is used to enforce creepy-ass heteronormativity thats already at full blast with Popular Yaoi Ships… like wow, how fuckin original, the less masculine, submissive of the two is the Lesser Male meant to be a breeding factory, and often destined to be subjected to a forced, downright rapey relationship. you did a real good job going beyond our expectations there, real genre breakingi really have no love for the fact that an au template that hinges on rape/dubcon fetishism and transphobia/cissexism out of ignorance happens to be The Most prevalent thing i have to see when i just want to jerk off

[22]

Yeah, as Everbright says… the biggest *cough* “realism” issue is that in an actual wolf pack, alpha male mates with alpha female, not with the omegas. Alpha female wolves are like alpha male wolves — often just as aggressive or more aggressive than their male partners. (There are documented cases of very aggressive alpha females with fairly easygoing alpha males.) Alpha males might in fact try to mate with other females in the pack, too, but it’s generally the alpha female who warns off the other females (an alpha male’s daughters will also warn off his attempts to mate with them), and I think I’ve seen theories that her dominance causes the subordinate females not to go into estrus anyway. Subordinate females, including omegas, who become pregnant in a pack risk the alphas killing them, killing their pups, driving them away from the pack, or in a best-case scenario, taking their pups to raise as their own…

Meta/Further Reading

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2020

Notes and References

Notes

References


5 MALE PERSONALITY TYPES – Which One Are You? (Alpha, Beta, Omega, Gamma, Sigma)


5 MALE PERSONALITY TYPES Which One Are You?
⭐30 Days To Alpha BluePrint: https://30daystoalpha.com ⭐
(HUGE DISCOUNT THIS WEEK)
After this video, you will understand the 5 main male personality types. You will also identify where you belong in the pantheon of male personality archetypes. It is important to know that a man does not have to stay in one category for his whole life. Several men who now occupy the higher categories started in the lower ones. They got discontented with living below their potential and made a deliberate decision to better themselves.
I will discuss the Alpha, Beta, Omega, Gamma, and Sigma male personality types and examine their similarities as well as their differences.
If you have ever examined the animal kingdom, you will know that the Alpha male is the one who attracts the female, out of the entire pack, for the purpose of procreation. This also means that the chances of other males to get with the females reduce when the Alpha is around.
But then, that applies in the animal world. In the human world, things are slightly different. By different, I mean that apart from romantic partnerships and emotions that govern the human world, in this massive rat race, Alpha males are not the only ones who demonstrate women’s ideals. At least not anymore.
In all fairness, the best combination to determine your masculinity is a variety of personality types you can practice. While Alpha males appear more desirable with their rugged and rough exterior, it is actually the other personality types that attract women the most. Things have drastically changed today. There is also a high probability that men change their personality type with experience and age to better understand relationships in their lifetime.
Alpha male personality
The Alpha male personality is the most popular. This personality type goes with the nickname ‘bad boy’ and members are often the men who need their men to be men. He is the macho person who drips confidence with a bit of aggression, who is outgoing and demanding. This is not to say that Alpha males naturally objectify women.
Beta male personality
The perfect Beta male is your average ‘Mr. Nice Guy’. He is quite moderate in his approach to life and his ‘nice guy’ personality gets him by. He gets taken for a ride, from time to time and then because of that, but generally, everyone likes him. Betas are more sensitive and less aggressive than Alphas. They also take criticism well and demonstrate collaborative skills.
Omega male personality
Are you familiar with Ben Stiller, the Hollywood star? In most of his movies, he acts as an Omega male. Ben has really nerdy habits. For example, he may be a collector of something like comic books, coins, insects, or even video games. He is incredibly laidback and lazy and acts like he doesn’t have a care in the world.
Gamma male personality
Gamma males love enjoying themselves but don’t avoid their responsibilities at the same time. They are the adventurous and funloving ones who tend to get incredibly restless if they are left idle for too long. An Alpha male might mature into a Gamma male because Gamma males are a more refined version of them.
Sigma male personality
The Sigma male is said to be the more evolved version of the Alpha. Sigmas get things done their own way and have little time to bend to arbitrary rules that are constructed by society. They believe that without the superficial rules, they can be more efficient in using their own initiative and innovation.

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