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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh cơ bảnNếu bạn vừa mới bắt đầu học tiếng Anh, trước hết bạn cần phải biết một số quy tắc cơ bản của ngôn ngữ này. Việc phát triển một nền móng ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh vững chắc không chỉ giúp bạn tạo ra được những câu hoàn chỉnh, mà nó còn giúp bạn có thể phát triển được kỹ năng giao tiếp của bản thân một cách dễ dàng hơn, kể cả trong việc nói và viết Tiếng Anh www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com ENGLISH GRAMMAR This new edition of Downing and Locke’s award-winning text-book has been thoroughly revised and rewritten by Angela Downing to offer an integrated account of structure, meaning and function in relation to context Also used as a reference book, it provides the linguistic basis for courses and projects on translation, contrastive linguistics, stylistics, reading and discourse studies It is accessible and reader-friendly throughout Key features include: • • • • Chapters divided into modules of class-length materials Each new concept clearly explained and highlighted Authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and written, to illustrate grammatical usage Clear chapter and module summaries enabling efficient class preparation and student revision Exercises and topics for individual study Answer key for analytical exercises Comprehensive index Select bibliography Suggestions for further reading www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com • • • • • This up-to-date, descriptive grammar is a complete course for first degree and postgraduate students of English, and is particularly suitable for those whose native language is not English Angela Downing is Professor Emeritus in the Department of English Language and Linguistics (English Philology I) at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid The late Philip Locke taught at the Institute of Modern Languages and Translation at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com ENGLISH GRAMMAR A University Course Second edition Angela Downing and Philip Locke www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com First published 1992 by Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd Routledge edition published 2002 by Routledge This second edition published 2006 by Routledge Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com © 2006 Angela Downing and Philip Locke This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006 “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN10: 0–415–28787–1 ISBN10: 0–415–28786–3 ISBN13: 9–78–0–415–28787–6 (pbk) ISBN13: 9–78–0–415–28786–9 (hbk) This book is for: Enrique and to the memory of Philip Locke www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com CONTENTS Foreword Preface to the second edition Acknowledgements Introduction Table of notational symbols Basic concepts Module Module Module Language and meaning Linguistic forms and syntactic functions Negation and expansion Exercises xi xiii xv xvii xxi 21 28 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com The skeleton of the message: Introduction to clause structure Module Module Module Module Module Syntactic functions and structures of the clause Subject and Predicator Direct, Indirect and Prepositional Objects Subject and Object Complements Adjuncts Further reading Exercises The development of the message: Complementation of the verb Introduction: Major complementation patterns and valency Module Intransitive and copular patterns Module10 Transitive patterns Module 11 Complementation by finite clauses Module 12 Complementation by non-finite clauses Summary of complementation patterns Further reading Exercises 32 34 42 50 64 69 76 76 81 83 85 90 100 108 114 116 116 Conceptualising patterns of experience: Processes, participants, circumstances Module 13 Module 14 Module 15 Module 16 Module 17 Module 18 Module 19 Module 20 Module 21 Conceptualising experiences expressed as situation types Material processes of doing and happening Causative processes Processes of transfer Conceptualising what we think, perceive and feel Relational processes of being and becoming Processes of saying, behaving and existing Expressing attendant circumstances Conceptualising experiences from a different angle: Nominalisation and grammatical metaphor Further reading Exercises Interaction between speaker and hearer: Linking speech acts and grammar Module 22 Module 23 Module 24 Module 25 Module 26 Module 27 Speech acts and clause types The declarative and interrogative clause types The exclamative and imperative clause types Indirect speech acts, clause types and discourse functions Questions, clause types and discourse functions Directives: getting people to carry out actions Further reading Exercises 120 122 128 132 137 139 144 151 155 160 167 167 174 176 180 190 197 201 205 212 213 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Organising the message: Thematic and information structures of the clause Module 28 Theme: the point of departure of the message Module 29 The distribution and focus of information Module 30 The interplay of Theme–Rheme and Given–New Further reading Exercises Expanding the message: Clause combinations Module 31 Module 32 Module 33 Module 34 Module 35 Module 36 Clause combining Types of relationship between clauses Elaborating the message Extending the message Enhancing the message Reporting speech and thought Further reading Exercises viii CONTENTS 220 222 238 246 263 263 270 272 277 281 285 290 299 309 309 Talking about events: The Verbal Group Module 37 Module 38 Module 39 Module 40 315 Expressing our experience of events Basic structures of the Verbal Group Organising our experience of events The semantics of phrasal verbs 317 323 331 336 343 343 Further reading Exercises Viewpoints on events: Tense, aspect and modality 350 Module 41 Expressing location in time through the verb: tense Module 42 Past events and present time connected: Present Perfect and Past Perfect 361 369 379 394 394 Module 43 Situation types and the Progressive aspect Module 44 Expressing attitudes towards the event: modality Further reading Exercises 10 Talking about people and things: The Nominal Group 399 Module 45 Expressing our experience of people and things Module 46 Referring to people and things as definite, indefinite, Module 47 Module 48 Module 49 Module 50 352 401 generic Selecting and particularising the referent: the determiner Describing and classifying the referent: the pre-modifier Identifying and elaborating the referent: the post-modifier Noun complement clauses 417 423 435 446 457 462 462 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Further reading Exercises 11 Describing persons, things and circumstances: Adjectival and Adverbial groups Module 51 Module 52 Module 53 Module 54 Module 55 Module 56 473 Adjectives and the adjectival group Degrees of comparison and intensification Complementation of the adjective Adverbs and the adverbial group Syntactic functions of adverbs and adverbial groups Modification and complementation in the adverbial group Further reading Exercises 12 Spatial, temporal and other relationships: The Prepositional Phrase Module 57 Prepositions and the Prepositional Phrase Module 58 Syntactic functions of the Prepositional Phrase Module 59 Semantic features of the Prepositional Phrase 475 484 494 502 508 515 521 521 529 531 540 546 CONTENTS ix Indirect Object (Oi) 6–7, 34, 50–1, 55–6 semantic roles 50, 55 indirect (reported) speech 102–3, 299–300, 303–9 backshift 359 say and tell 105, 152 speech acts 178–9 thought 305, 308–9 indirectness 209–10 individuation (countability) 405–10 inference 207, 281–4, 291 infinitive see bare infinitive; to-infinitive information 93, 238–46 presupposed 249, 250–1 units 238–40 see also Focus of information informativeness 254 -ing (present participle) 12–13, 436, 478–9 clauses 13, 54, 101–2, 276 and affectivity 143 as complement 54, 56, 112–13, 115, 536–7 as Direct Object 53–4 expanding NG 259 initial as Theme 237 meanings 112–13, 288–9, 297 of + -ing 459 as Predicator 48 restrictive 452 as Subject 47 as supplementives 284, 447–8, 452 vs to-infinitive 108, 113, 332, 537 ingress or initiation [phase/aspect] 112, 331–5, 378 inherent circumstance 124–5 inherent participants 122, 125–7 see also obligatory elements initial position see thematic, fronting initiation or ingress [phase/aspect] 112, 331–5, 378 Instrument [circumstance] 156, 551 integration of classifier and noun 440–2 of preposition and verb 59–60 intended events 360 intensifiers, interrogatives 207 intensifiers and intensification 488 of adjectives 488–90 of adverbs 516–18 attenuation 490–1, 493 in discontinuous VGs 329–30 -ever in wh-words 186 of prepositions 531, 538 intensive relationship 68 intention 386–7, 393 interdependency [clauses] 275–6 interpersonal meaning 4–7, 178, 223, 234 interrogative mood/clauses 6, 22–3, 177–8, 180–9, 211, 225 alternative 180, 185 double 186–7 exclamations 200 in/dependent 106 indirect 105–6 intensifiers 207 modalised as directive 208 negative 21–4, 182–3 position of Subject 43, 180, 182–3 wh- (non-polar) 22–3, 100, 105–6, 185–7 yes/no (polar) 22, 177, 201–2, 225 see also queclaratives; questions intonation 193, 195, 196, 199, 203, 207 contour 276 questions 176, 181, 186, 187 see also nucleus; tone units intransitive patterns/verbs 37–8, 91, 126–7 complementation 83, 85–7 copular verbs 37–8 pseudo-intransitive 132, 135–6 intrinsic modality see modality, meanings inversion of subject–verb 230–1, 300–1 interrogatives 22–3, 182–4, 321–2 not always possible 243, 287 so/neither/nor 244–5 involuntary processes 130–1, 152 involvement of speaker in get-passive 256 it 413 anticipatory 47–8, 52, 260–1 dummy 44, 250 iterativity (of aspect) 377, 378 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com just [aspectual marker] 508 just [intensifier] 508–9, 516 keep [verb] 88, 97–9, 332–3, 340, 378 know [verb] 102, 104–7, 141 don’t know 105 Landmark 546 laugh at 57–9 left-dislocations 232–3 let’s/let us/let 194–5 discourse functions 194, 207 lexical auxiliaries 21, 319–20 see also verbs, lexical lexical density 162 lexical (free) prepositions 534, 546–8 like [verb] 108–10, 142–3 Location [circumstance] 71, 86, 155–6 with be and put 124 INDEX 603 Goal 72, 155–6 space or time 146 Time 292, 293–4 verb tense 353–4 Locative [space/time] 37–8, 155 adjuncts 155 adverbs 505–6 change of location 549 prepositions 546, 548–51 Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) 17, 37–8, 99 intransitive verbs 86–7 logical necessity 382–3, 385 look after 57–9 loving/hating see affectivity make, use for Range 94, 158–9 Manner [circumstance] 37, 72, 156, 292, 293–4, 553 phrasal verbs 337–40 manner-of-motion verbs 86, 337–40 manner/attitude [phase] 334–5 marked vs unmarked see Focus; tense; Theme markers attitudinal 203–4 discourse 222 of countability 409–10 mass noun see countability, non-count material processes 122, 125, 138 causative 132–4 doing/happening 128–31 Matter [circumstance] 157 may and may not 323–4, 388–9, 392 Means 146, 156 mental processes 122, 125, 139–43 metaphor 146 grammatical 160–5 prepositions 552–3 metonymy 420, 552–3 might and mightn’t 392 hypothetical 385, 393 might/must have 327–8 modal auxiliaries [verbs] 21, 318, 320, 325–8, 385 negation of may/must 388–9 past time ref 386, 388, 391, 392 have + -en 383, 385, 390 with perfect + passive 327–8 with perfect/progressive 318, 325–6 semi-modals 21–2, 318, 380 should for subjunctive 103, 393 modality 325, 379–94 adjectives/adverbs/nouns 380–1 as circumstance 157 meanings 379–81, 385, 393 deontic or intrinsic 385–90, 393 dynamic 390–2 epistemic or extrinsic 157, 209, 381–5 hypothetical 393 modal harmony 381 modal tags 207 modalised declarative/interrogative 208–9 modifier (m) 18–19, 403, 492 of adjectives 492–3 of adverbs 515–18 of nouns 404 of prepositions 531–2, 538–9 quantified 491 see also post-modifier; pre-modifier momentary verbs/acts see aspect, lexical monotransitive patterns/verbs 90–2, 101 atypical 103 monovalency 126 mood 6, 176, 181, 196, 207 see also declarative; exclamative; imperative; interrogative; subjunctive morphs and morphemes 11, 16, 26 Motion Events/verbs 231, 336–9 and Cause 338–9 and Manner 86, 337–40 and Path 72, 337–41 translation of 339 movement see Motion Events/verbs mustn’t vs needn’t/don’t have to 387–9 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com 604 INDEX necessity 385–90, 393 logical 157, 209, 381–5 need [semi-modal] 21–2, 380 needn’t as negative of must 389, 393 negation and negative clauses 21–6, 230–1 cumulative 23 declaratives 199 imperative 194 interrogative 21–4, 183 inversion of subject–operator 230–1, 510–11 must/need 388–9, 393 no/none/no-one 258, 428 not + any 23, 428 not 22, 182 nuclear 23, 203 question tags 187 transferred 26, 199 negative objects 231 neither [substitutive] 230, 244 see also coordination; determiner, distributives new information see Given–New NICE properties 321 no and not see negation nominal clauses 14–15, 106 see also that-clauses; wh-interrogative clauses Nominal Group (NG) 16, 18, 44, 52, 403–5 appositive as post-modifier 455 Complement of Subject/Object 66, 68, 98, 420 complement of preposition 531 functions 404–5, 460–1 divisible 110–12 in/definite 417–21 structure 18, 403, 403–5, 416, 438, 444 order of elements 435 unmarked for count 407 nominalisation 162–5, 461–2 non-agentive verbs 244 non-assertion see assertive/non-assertive non-clausal material 274–5 non-count nouns 405–9 markers 409–10 non-declarative see imperative; interrogative non-defining see relative clauses, restrictive non-factual see factual or not? non-finite (dependent) clauses 12–14, 47, 53–4 as complement 108–15, 496–7 see also bare infinitive; -en/ed; -ing; to-infinitive adjuncts/variants 71, 74, 75, 106 supplementive 284 non-finite verb forms 12–13, 324, 328–9 non-restrictive see relative clauses, restrictive non-specific vs indefinite 418–19 notational symbols xxi–xxii noun complement clauses 457–62 nouns 16, 380, 405–11 compound 440–2 nominalisation 162–5, 461–2 proper 410–11 see also pronouns nuclear negative 23, 203 nucleus (intonation) 239, 242 numerals, cardinal/ordinal 427 obligation 385–90, 393 obligatory elements 37–8, 64, 83, 86, 238 occurrence, verbs of 85–6 offers reported 305–7 one-to-one correspondence 20, 40 one/ones [pronoun] 403, 416 operator/finite operator 21–2, 181–2, 317–18, 321–2, 324 the do-operator 21 extended VGs 325–8 optative mood 195 order (sequence) 224 adjectives 438–9, 444–5 AdjG 438–9, 444–5 determinatives 434 determiners 434 Finite and Subject 43 NG 403, 435, 438 ought 21, 318, 383, 387, 390 parenthetical clauses 105, 283–5, 300–3, 451 participants (semantic roles) 4–5, 123, 124, 129, 166 un/actualised 125–7 see also Affected; Agent; Beneficiary; Carrier; Existent; Experiencer; Force; Phenomenon; Possessor/ed; Range; Recipient; Sayer/Said participials (adj) 478–9 pseudo-participials 436, 478 participles 13; see also -en/ed; -ing particle (p) 18–19, 22, 341 let’s 194 in phrasal verbs 60–2, 336–41 partitive [determiner] 428–9 Passage 549 passive voice 7–8, 252–7 active/passive 10, 38, 64, 93, 98, 111–12, 252–7 with Affected subject 43, 129, 252–5 bare infinitive 111–12 in complex transitives 97–8 discourse motivation 253, 255–6 and end-focus 246, 252–3 get 136, 138, 256–7 and prepositional object/verb 95–6 raised object 38, 50, 110–11, 252–4 rare with Beneficiary 55 with Recipient subject 43, 55, 253–5 with two objects 93 in VG structures 325–9 without Agent 254–5 passivisation see passive voice, active/passive past participle see -en/ed past tense 353–4, 358–60, 372 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Object 35–6, 229–30, 231 see also Direct Object; Indirect Object; Object Complement; Prepositional Object Object Complement (Co) 17, 36, 38, 64, 67–8 Attributive 68, 97–8 oblique 56, 68, 105 vs adjunct 68 object-to-subject raising 38, 50, 321 objective/subjective (case) 437–8 pronouns 43, 50, 64 INDEX 605 distancing 359, 381 and Present Perfect 361–3 see also Perfect; Progressive; tense Path or Direction [circumstance] 72, 155, 549 Passage 549 phrasal verbs 337–41 Patient see Affected pauses, symbols xxii perception [process] 111–12, 139–40, 142 the senses 146 see also cognition Perfect [aspect/form] 361 non-finite 368 Past Perfect 361, 366–7, 372 progressive 372, 377 Present Perfect 361–6, 372 progressive 372, 376–7 time–frame 361–4 continuous 365, 376–7 first time 365 vs past tense 362–3 perfective/imperfective 369, 370 performatives [verbs] 197–9 explicit 197–9 hedged (indirect) 198 permission 385–92, 393 personal pronouns see pronouns perspective 96–7, 162–3, 421, 547–8 persuade-type verbs 110 phase 112, 331–5, 378 Phenomenon [participant] 139–43 phrasal quantifiers 429, 433 phrasal verbs 60–3, 336–43 idiomatic 86, 342–3 semi-idiomatic 341–2 non-idiomatic 337–40 phrasal-prepositional 62 syntactic features 60–1 vs prepositional verbs 61–2, 338 see also Figure and Ground; manner-of-motion verbs; Motion Events; Path pitch (intonation) 228, 239, 489 place-frame 155, 228–9 place-holders see dummy it; there unstressed as Subject plural forms of nouns 405–10 point of departure in message 224, 226 point of reference in time 352–3 polarity (positive/negative) 182, 242, 325 see also question tags; yes/no interrogatives politeness and polite forms 203–4, 211–12, 359, 489 directives 206, 207–8 position 38, 145, 223–37, 252–3 positive/negative see polarity possession 144, 146–8 possessive forms 425–6, 535 Possessor/ed [participants] 147 possibility 157, 209, 381–5, 390–2 post-determinative 404 post-head elements 402–4, 447 post-modifier (m) 403–4, 446–56 realisations 446–8 embedded or integrated (restrictive) 446–50 mixed or other 452–6 supplementives (non–restrictive) 404, 446, 448, 451 vs complement 404, 476 postponement 262 potentiality 113, 359–60, 379 power (factor) 177, 199 pragmatic inference 86–7, 180, 294–6 pre-determinative 404 predicate 35, 101, 421 predicatives 482 detached 71, 231, 231–2, 482 Predicator (P) 35, 42, 48–9, 101, 182 predicted/required elements 37–8 prediction 359, 380–1, 382, 385 pre-head 402–4, 476, 509 pre-modifier in NG (m) 403–4, 435–45, 444 multiple items 443–5 Prepositional Object (Op) 56–60 fronted 58 with passive 59–60 with phrasal-/prepositional verbs 62, 91–2, 95–6 in wh-questions 58 Prepositional Phrase (PP) 19, 531–4, 532, 535–55 as Adjunct or Complement 62, 68, 460, 497–9, 533, 541–2 complement element 531–2, 536–7 embedded 533, 541 as post-modifiers 452–3 as Subject 45 see also discontinuity prepositional verbs 56–9, 92, 95 phrasal-prepositional verbs 62 vs phrasal verbs 61–2, 338 prepositions 16, 296, 504–5, 531–2, 534–5, 540–1 free vs bound 534, 547 bound (grammaticised) 554–5 free (lexical) 547–53 modifiers 538–9 stranded 59, 534, 556–8 and that-clauses 104 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com 606 INDEX verbs that take 92, 95 vs adverb particles 338, 504, 544 vs homographs 543–5 present participle see -ing present tense 354–7, 372 habitual 356, 374–5, 377–8 past events 356–7 stative 355–6 see also Perfect; Progressive; tense presupposition 242–3, 249, 358 primary verbs 21, 318 see also operator probability 157, 209, 381–5, 390–2 processes (lexical aspect) 370–2 processes (semantic types) 4–5, 49, 122–7, 163, 166 dynamic/stative 1, 123, 141, 354–5 see also behavioural; existential; material; mental; relational; verbal programmed events 359–60 progression see thematic progression Progressive [aspect/form] 123, 142, 325, 369, 372–5 discourse functions 294–5, 375–6 durative un/bounded verbs 371–2, 374–5 future events 360 iterativity 377, 378 non-progressive 325, 355, 369, 372–3, 376 passive 327–8 Perfect aspect 326–8, 376–7 and tense 372 prominence (tonic) 239 pronouns/pronominal forms 16, 104, 411–16 backshift 303–5 demonstrative 414–15, 424–5 personal 43–4, 50, 64–5, 255, 411–13 gender-neutral 412–13 indefinite 413–14 one/ones 403, 416 reflexive 192, 413 wh-type 185–6, 413 propensity 390–2 proper names/nouns 227, 410 (proto)typical forms 40–1, 44–8, 52–4, 88, 226 correspondence 178 pseudo-cleft clause see clefting pseudo-intransitive 132, 135–6, 138 pseudo-participials [adjectives] 436, 478 punctuation 274–5, 281, 283, 441, 447 Purpose [circumstance] 156, 235–7, 297, 548, 558 put and location 124 quantifier 403–4, 427–9, 491, 538 non-count nouns 408–10 queclaratives 201, 203–4 question tags 43, 181, 187–9, 207 questions 201–4 echo 180, 183–4, 190 see also interrogative quotation see direct (quoted) speech quotative verbs 302–3, 356–7 raised elements 109, 111, 261, 321, 496 Range [participant] 51, 94, 152, 158–9 rank-scale 11 real, appearing [phase] 334 realisations 19–20, 39, 40–1, 160–6 Adjuncts 71, 74–5 Complements 66, 68 modal meanings 380–1 Objects 56, 59–60 prepositional complements 536–9 Subjects 44–8 verb complementation 114–15 VGs 318–19, 326 Reason [circumstance] 156 Recipient [participant] 5, 7–8, 55–6, 137–8, 151 recursive links 108, 455 reduced clauses see clauses, classes of, reduced reference and referent 95, 111, 417–22 anaphoric (backwards) 227, 414, 419 cataphoric (forwards) 414, 419 chains and coherence 226–7, 243, 259, 415 exophoric 414 generic 421–2 partitive 428–9 reflexive/emphatic pronouns 192, 413 relational processes 122, 125, 144–50 Attributive 144–5 attributive 145–6 circumstantial 146 possessive 146–8 Identifying 144, 148–50 see also Token/Value relative [circumstances] 155 relative clauses 449–52 adverbial 454 non-restrictive (supplementive) 283–4, 404, 448, 451 restrictive (defining) 404, 447–8, 450 relativisers 449–50 relevance in Present Perfect 365–6 relevance time (R) 361–2 reporting speech/thought 299–309 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com qualifier see modifier; post-modifier INDEX 607 representation see clauses, functions, interpreted respect (as + NG) 98 restating to clarify 282 restrictive/non-restrictive 447–8 Result 294, 366, 553 retrospection, verbs of 112–13 reversibility 145–6, 148–50, 251, 278–9 Rheme 223–4, 246–9 rhetorical questions 201 right-dislocations 232–3 Role [circumstance] 157 ’s possessive 425–6, 535 salience (cognitive) 226 say [verb] 103 and tell 105, 152, 301–2, 305 Sayer/Said [participants] 151–2 saying, communicating [process] 151–2 scope see Range selective quantifier 427 semantic functions xxi, 4–5 vs syntactic 114–15, 125, 160–2 see also Affected; Agent; Attribute; Beneficiary; Carrier; Experiencer; Force; Locative; Phenomenon; Range; Recipient; Sayer/Said semantic valency 83–4 semantic–syntactic transfer see grammatical metaphor semi-determinatives 423, 431–3 semi-modal verbs 21–2, 318, 380 semi-negatives 24 semi-auxiliaries see lexical auxiliaries Senser see Experiencer sensing see perception sentences 272–5, 277–9, 298 sentential relative clauses 283–4 sequencing events 331–3 shall/shan’t 21, 182, 386–7, 388, 393 should/shouldn’t 21, 383, 385, 390, 393 situation types 122, 287, 369, 371–2, 371 see also Attributes; circumstance; participants; processes situational ellipsis 244 so [conjunction] 295 so [substitutive] 230, 244 some and derived forms 202–3, 427–9 Source [circumstance] 72, 155, 549 space, spatial see Location; Locative specific vs definite 418–19 speech acts 176–9, 206, 207 verbs 92, 109–10 see also direct (quoted); indirect (reported) speech time 352–5, 353 spoken English 104, 162, 195–6, 256, 283, 488–90, 513–14 concord 45, 257 conversation 179, 195–6, 293–4, 301–3, 335 examples 3–4, 240, 260, 520–1 dialogue 301–3 novels 26, 209–10, 307–8, 393–4 plays 75–6, 184, 415 ellipsis 183, 204 interview 48 prepositional phrases 533, 537 question tags 187–9 see also idiomatic usage stance see Adjunct, Stance stance adverbs 506 statement 177–9, 181–2 states of affairs 259–60 stative process/use/verb 123, 140, 141, 354–5 vs dynamic 370–2 still vs already/yet 513 stranded prepositions 59, 534, 556–8 stressed/unstressed 228, 238–42, 488–9 question tag 187–8 there 45, 153–4, 228, 257–60 see also any; some structure xxi, 20 AdjG 475, 476, 492 AdvG 475, 502–3, 508–9 clause 17–18, 34–41, 101, 277–9 NG 18, 403, 403–5, 416, 435 PP 531–2, 532 VG 18–19, 317–18, 321–2, 324–9, 335 style adjuncts 73–4 Subject (S) 35, 42–8, 181, 225–7 Affected 129, 135–6 embedded clause 46–7 implicit 109, 191–2 see also extraposition Subject Complement (Cs) 17, 36, 64–7, 88 Identifying 66, 230 subject–operator inversion see inversion subjective/objective [case] 437–8 subjunctive mood/form 103, 196, 358–9, 393, 495 subordination 26, 27–8, 279 subordinate clauses 292 see also dependency subordinators see complementisers; conjunctions substitution 238, 244–5 such 431–2 sufficiency, degrees of 500 suggestions, reported 305–7 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com 608 INDEX superordinate clauses 14, 100 supplementives 14–15, 71 detached predicative 71, 231–2, 482 non-finite clause 284, 288–9 non-restrictive 283–4, 446, 448, 451 parenthetical 404 verbless clauses 15, 190, 195, 453, 482 suppletive [adjectival form] 485 swear words 518 symbols xxi–xxii syntactic functions xxi, 7, 17–19, 39–40 vs semantic 114–15, 125, 160–2 tag see question tags take, use for Range 94, 158–9 Target [participant] 152 tell [verb] 105–6 tense 325, 352–4 deictic function 353 marked/unmarked 354 past 357–60, 374–8 habitual 374–5, 377–8 for hypothetical 358–9 for present 358–9 see also backshift present 354–7 for future 358–60 see also be going to habitual 356, 374–5, 377–8 for past 356–7 state 355–6 tensed forms 12, 181–2, 352 termination [phase] 334 tests for constituents 9–10, 58, 129, 133, 138 textual component/meaning 223, 234 textual ellipsis 243–4 textual/pragmatic functions see Given–New; Theme, and Rheme; Topic that [complementiser] 102–5 that [demonstrative] 414–15, 424–5 that-clauses 46, 100, 101–5, 196, 449–50, 457–8 extraposed 260–1 relative 449–50, 456 thematic 6–7 equative 251 fronting (thematisation) 145, 223–37, 510–11 progression 246–9 Theme 222–5, 226–37, 261, 542 absolute 232 constant 247–8 continuative 75, 234 derived 248–9 detached 232–4 dislocation 232–3 marked/unmarked 224–5 multiple 235 negative 230–1 non-experiential 234–5 and Rheme 6–7, 223–4, 228, 235, 246–9 and Subject/Topic 225–7 there [existential] 45, 153–4, 228, 257–60 there/then [anaphora] 229 think [verb] 103–4, 141 this/that [demonstratives] 414–15, 424–5 this/that (of quantity) 491 thoughts reported 302–3 three-place [ditransitive] verbs 90, 92–6, 126, 137–8 Time [circumstance] see Location; Locative time-frame 126, 155, 228–9, 353–4 prepositions 551–2 present/past perfect 362, 367 progressive 375–6 to-infinitive clauses 12–13, 47, 54, 143, 297, 452 as complement/object 53–4, 101–2, 109–11, 332, 459, 496–7, 519–20 extraposed 260–1 with lexical auxiliaries 319–20 of purpose 236–7 vs bare infinitive 112 vs -ing clause 108, 113, 332, 537 togetherness 157 Token/Value 144, 149–50 tone units xxii, 238–40 tonic prominence (syllable) 238–9 Topic and topicality 35, 222, 225–8 cognitive features 42, 226, 272 continuity 227, 255–6 Trajector 546 transfer of verb/process 92–3, 128, 137–8 transferred negation 199 transitivity 5, 90–9, 122 hypothesis (high–low) 160, 165 in/transitive verbs 37–8, 126 types see complex-transitive; copular; ditransitive; intransitive; monotransitive see also complementation patterns translation 339 trivalency see three-place [ditransitive] verbs two-place [monotransitive] verbs 90–2, 126, 128–36 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com unactualised (unexpressed) element 91, 125–7, 141 unbounded see boundedness units 11–20 INDEX 609 unreal/hypothetical [past] 367 upgrading to clarify 282–3 used to (habituality) 369, 377–8 valency 83–4, 126 reduction 94, 122, 127 Value/Token 144, 149–50 Verbal Group (VG) 16, 18–19, 317–18, 318, 321–9 complementation 18–19, 317–18, 321–2, 324–9, 335 discontinuous 323, 329–30 experiential structure 323–4 phased 54, 112, 331–5, 378 realisations 318–19, 326 verbal process (saying) 151–2 verbless clauses 195–6, 204, 210, 212, 276, 307 supplementive 15, 190, 195, 453, 482 verbs 16, 37–8, 85–91, 193, 297, 318 bounded/unbounded 372 catenative 108–9 dynamic/stative 154–5, 354–5, 371–2 finite/non-finite 12–13 intransitive (one-place) 85–9, 91 copular 37–8, 88–9 lexical (v) 18, 318, 370–2 vs operator 321–2 meanings behaviour 85–6, 152–3 being/becoming 88, 144–6 causative/ergative 91, 113, 126, 130, 132–6, 138 cognitive/factual 102, 111, 141 doing/happening 126, 128–31, 138 expectation 102 finding/leaving 113 motion 231, 336–9 perception/suggestion 102–4, 114 possession 147 reciprocal/reflexive 91 saying 92, 109–10, 151–2, 301–2, 305 transfer 92–3, 128, 137–8, 138 volitional 113, 142, 152–3 and prepositions 91–2, 543 punctual or momentary 372 quotative 302–3, 356–7 transitive 90–1 three-place (ditransitive) 90, 92–6 two-place (monotransitive) 83, 90–2 see also auxiliary verbs; complementation patterns; ergative pairs; modal auxiliaries; performatives; phrasal verbs; prepositional verbs; primary verbs; valency viewpoint 370 vocatives 192, 234 voice (active/passive) 7–8, 129, 252–7 volition 385–90, 393 verbs of 113, 142, 152–3 want-type verbs 98, 108–11, 142–3 see also desideration weather, verbs of 85, 126 wh-clauses 10–12, 46, 105–7, 195 complement 100–2, 105–7, 191, 536 wh-nominal 100, 101, 106, 260–1, 459–60, 537–8 exclamative 100, 107, 191 interrogative 22–3, 46, 100, 105–6 wh-cleft see clefting wh-determinatives 190, 193, 403, 426–7, 433 wh-interrogatives 22–3, 100, 105–6, 185–7, 225 wh-words 100, 185, 449–50 + ever 186 will/won’t/will have 21, 381–2, 386–7, 390–1, 393 willingness 385–90, 392–3 words 11, 16 would 143, 382, 391 would have + -en participle 393 would rather/sooner 318, 320 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Index written by Angela Downing and Gerard M-F Hill 2005 610 INDEX yes/no (polar) interrogatives 22, 177, 201–2, 225 yet 24, 290–2 vs still/already 513 zero anaphora 227, 449–50, 454 zero articles 420, 421–2, 450 zero plural 405 RELATED TITLES FROM ROUTLEDGE English Grammar Richard Hudson Routledge Language Workbooks are practical introductions to specific areas of language for absolute beginners They provide comprehensive coverage of the areas as well as a basis for further study English Grammar: • helps users to understand grammatical concepts • encourages the reader to practise applying newly discovered concepts to everyday texts • teaches students to analyse almost every word in any English text • provides teachers and students with a firm grounding in a system which they can both understand and apply www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Pb: 0-415-17410-4 Available at all good bookshops For further information, please visit www.routledge.com/linguistics RELATED TITLES FROM ROUTLEDGE Grammar and Context An advanced resource book for students Ann Hewings and Martin Hewings Grammar and Context considers how grammatical choices influence and are influenced by the context in which communication takes place This is part of a series of comprehensive resource books, providing students and researchers with theoretical introductions, a range of readings from key names in the field, and extensive tasks and research tips www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Hb: 0-415-31080-6 Pb: 0-415-31081-4 Available at all good bookshops For further information, please visit www.routledge.com/linguistics RELATED TITLES FROM ROUTLEDGE Grammar and Vocabulary A resource book for students Howard Jacksonn This is a comprehensive introduction to the grammar and vocabulary of contemporary English covering core areas and providing classic readings by key names in the discipline Grammar and Vocabulary: • covers the core areas of the subject: words and sentences, word classes, word structure, slots and fillers, sentence patterns, clause and phrase, grammar rules and vocabularies • draws on a wide range of real texts from newspaper articles, adverts, poems and websites • provides classic readings by key names in the discipline www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Hb: 0-415-23170-1 Pb: 0-415-23171-X Available at all good bookshops For further information, please visit www.routledge.com/linguistics RELATED TITLES FROM ROUTLEDGE Introducing Language in Use Aileen Bloomer, Patrick Griffiths & Andrew John Merrison An essential introduction for students of English language and linguistics, this book guides the reader through the core areas of study, drawing on a wide range of texts and examples “This is an exceptionally rich textbook, providing expert but friendly introductions to a wide range of fields of language study, up-to-date examples, opportunities to debate and analyse language, a glossary and extensive further reading.” Dr Tim Parke, University of Hertforshire www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Hb: 0-415-29178-X Pb: 0-415-29179-8 Available at all good bookshops For further information, please visit www.routledge.com/linguistics SERIES FROM ROUTLEDGE Routledge Applied Linguistics Series Editors: Chris Candlin & Ronald Carter Routledge Applied Linguistics is a series of comprehensive resource books, providing students and researchers with the support they need for advanced study in the core areas of English language and Applied Linguistics Each book in the series guides readers through three main sections, introductions, influential readings and tasks and research exercises Throughout the books, topics are revisited, extended, interwoven and deconstructed, with the reader’s understanding strengthened by tasks and follow-up questions www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Titles in the series so far include: Intercultural Communication by Holliday, Hyde & Kullman Translation by Hatim & Munday Grammar and Context by Hewings & Hewings Second Language Acquisition by de Bot, Lowie & Verspoor Corpus-Based Language Studies by McEnery, Xiao & Tono For further information, please visit www.routledge.com/linguistics SERIES FROM ROUTLEDGE Routledge English Language Introductions Series Editor: Peter Stockwell Series Consultant: Ronald Carter Routledge English Language Introductions cover core areas of language study and are one-stop resources for students Assuming no prior knowledge, books in the series offer an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, sample analyses, commentaries and key readings www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Titles in the series so far include: Sociolinguistics by Peter Stockwell Pragmatics and Discourse by Joan Cutting Grammar and Vocabulary by Howard Jackson Psycholinguistics by John Field World Englishes by Jennifer Jenkins Practical Phonetics and Phonology by Beverley Collins & Inger Mees Stylistics by Paul Simpson Language in Theory by Mark Robson & Peter Stockwell Child Language by Jean Stilwell Peccei For further information, please visit www.routledge.com/linguistics eBooks – at www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk A library at your fingertips! eBooks are electronic versions of printed books You can store them on your PC/laptop or browse them online They have advantages for anyone needing rapid access to a wide variety of published, copyright information eBooks can help your research by enabling you to bookmark chapters, annotate text and use instant searches to find specific words or phrases Several eBook files would fit on even a small laptop or PDA NEW: Save money by eSubscribing: cheap, online access to any eBook for as long as you need it www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com Annual subscription packages We now offer special low-cost bulk subscriptions to packages of eBooks in certain subject areas These are available to libraries or to individuals For more information please contact [email protected] We’re continually developing the eBook concept, so keep up to date by visiting the website www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk […]… Mendoza), Mohsen Ghadessy (University of Brunei), Martin Wynne (University of Oxford), Belinda Maia (University of Oporto), Marta Carretero and Elena Martínez Caro (Universidad Complutense, Madrid), Amaya Mendikoetxea, Rachel Whittaker and Laura Hidalgo (Universidad Autónoma, Madrid) and Carmina Gregori (University of Valencia) I remember with gratitude Emilio Lorenzo Criado, of the Real Academia Española,… would especially like to thank Andrei Stoevsky (University of Sofia), who made detailed comments on every chapter, and Chris Butler (University of Wales Swansea) who has given invaluable assistance and advice through two editions of this book Also much appreciated were the many useful comments made by Mike Hannay and Lachlan Mackenzie (Free University, Amsterdam), Ana Hansen (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo,… wealth of information and accurate detail of the various grammars by Randolph Quirk, Sydney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik, we now have the new dimensions provided by the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad and Edward Finegan) and the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K Pullum, together… written primarily for undergraduate and graduate students of English as a foreign or second language It is also addressed to tutors and others interested in applying a broadly functional approach to language teaching in higher education It assumes an intermediate standard of knowledge and practical handling of the language and, from this point of departure, seeks to fulfil the following aims: 1 2 3… collapsing of chapters 11 and 12 into one (adjectival and adverbial groups), leaving 12 (prepositions and the prepositional phrase) as the final chapter Following the welcome feedback from reviewers and consultants, there has also been some rearrangement of the material: in particular, the section on negation has been brought forward to Chapter 1, and the syntax of prepositional and phrasal verbs is made more… real life, or in an imaginary world of the mind, can be expressed through language as a situation or state of affairs Used in this way, the terms ‘situation’ or ‘state of affairs ‘ do not refer directly to an extra-linguistic reality that exists in the real world, but rather to the speaker’s conceptualisation of it The components of this conceptualisation of reality are semantic roles or functions and… Coordination Subordination Embedding 25 25 26 26 27 28 28 www.IELTS4U.blogfa.com LANGUAGE AND MEANING MODULE 1 A functional grammar aims to match forms to function and meaning in context This module introduces the three strands of meaning that form the basis of a functional interpretation of grammar: the representational, the interpersonal and the textual Each of these strands is encoded in the clause… certain ways to facilitate the creation of textual meaning The textual resources of the clause, such as the active–passive alternative, enable the representational strand and the interpersonal strand of meaning to cohere as a message, not simply as a sentence in isolation, but in relation to what precedes it in the discourse Each type of meaning is encoded by its own structures; the three types of structure… Structural patterns are seen as configurations of functions, whether of participants and processes, of modifiers and head of, for instance, a noun, or of Subject, verb and Complements, among others These in turn are realised in a variety of ways according to the communicative effect desired Speakers and writers are free, within the resources a particular language displays, to choose those patterns which… describing clausal and sentence patterns, together with their corresponding elements of structure, from syntactic, semantic, textual and communicative-pragmatic points of view; and five chapters dealing similarly with nominal, verbal, adjectival, adverbial and prepositional groups and phrases In each case the aim is that of describing each pattern or structural element in use, rather than that of entering … Mendikoetxea, Rachel Whittaker and Laura Hidalgo (Universidad Autónoma, Madrid) and Carmina Gregori (University of Valencia) I remember with gratitude Emilio Lorenzo Criado, of the Real Academia Española,… students acquire a global vision of English, rather than concentrate on unrelated areas; to see a grammar as providing a means of understanding the relation of form to meaning, and meaning to… especially like to thank Andrei Stoevsky (University of Sofia), who made detailed comments on every chapter, and Chris Butler (University of Wales Swansea) who has given invaluable assistance and advice

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Xem thêm: English grammar of a university course (Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản), English grammar of a university course (Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản), English grammar of a university course (Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản), MODULE 2. LINGUISTIC FORMS AND SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS, MODULE 4. SYNTACTIC ELEMENTS AND STRUCTURES OF THE CLAUSE, MODULE 6. DIRECT, INDIRECT AND PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS, MODULE 7. SUBJECT AND OBJECT COMPLEMENTS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MESSAGE: COMPLEMENTATION OF THE VERB, MODULE 9. INTRANSITIVE AND COPULAR PATTERNS, MODULE 11. COMPLEMENTATION BY FINITE CLAUSES, MODULE 12. COMPLEMENTATION BY NON-FINITE CLAUSES, MODULE 13. CONCEPTUALISING EXPERIENCES EXPRESSEDAS SITUATION TYPES, MODULE 14. MATERIAL PROCESSES OF DOING AND HAPPENING, MODULE 17. CONCEPTUALISING WHAT WE THINK, PERCEIVE AND FEEL, MODULE 18. RELATIONAL PROCESSES OF BEING AND BECOMING, MODULE 19. PROCESSES OF SAYING, BEHAVING AND EXISTING, MODULE 21. CONCEPTUALISING EXPERIENCES FROM A DIFFERENT ANGLE: NOMINALISATION AND GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR, MODULE 22. SPEECH ACTS AND CLAUSE TYPES, MODULE 23. THE DECLARATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE TYPES, MODULE 24. THE EXCLAMATIVE AND IMPERATIVE CLAUSE TYPES, MODULE 25. INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS, CLAUSE TYPES AND DISCOURSE FUNCTIONS, MODULE 26. QUESTIONS, CLAUSE TYPES AND DISCOURSE FUNCTIONS, MODULE 27. DIRECTIVES: GETTING PEOPLE TO CARRY OUT ACTIONS, MODULE 28. THEME: THE POINT OF DEPARTURE OF THE MESSAGE, MODULE 29. THE DISTRIBUTION AND FOCUS OF INFORMATION, MODULE 30. THE INTERPLAY OF THEME-RHEME AND GIVEN-NEW, MODULE 32. TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLAUSES, MODULE 36. REPORTING SPEECH AND THOUGHT, MODULE 37. EXPRESSING OUR EXPERIENCE OF EVENTS, MODULE 38. BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE VERBAL GROUP, MODULE 39. ORGANISING OUR EXPERIENCE OF EVENTS, MODULE 40. THE SEMANTICS OF PHRASAL VERBS, MODULE 41. EXPRESSING LOCATION IN TIME THROUGH THE VERB: TENSE, MODULE 42. PAST EVENTS AND PRESENT TIME CONNECTED: PERSENT PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT, MODULE 43. SITUATION TYPES AND THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT, MODULE 44. EXPRESSING ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE EVENT: MODALITY, MODULE 45. EXPRESSING OUR EXPERIENCE OF PEOPLE AND THINGS, MODULE 46. REFERRING TO PEOPLE AND THINGS AS DEFINITE, INDEFINITE, GENERIC, MODULE 47. SELECTING AND PARTICULARISING THE REFERENT: THE DETERMINER, MODULE 48. DESCRIBING AND CLASSIFYING THE REFERENT: THE PRE-MODIDIER, MODULE 49. IDENTIFYING AND ELABORATING THE REFERENT: THE POST-MODIFIER, MODULE 51. ADJECTIVES AND THE ADJECTIVAL GROUP, MODULE 52. DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND INTENSIFICATION, MODULE 53. COMPLEMENTATION OF THE ADJECTIVE, MODULE 54. ADVERBS AND THE ADVERBIAL GROUP, MODULE 55. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL GROUPS, MODULE 56. MODIFICATION AND COMPLEMENTATION IN THE ADVERBIAL GROUP, MODULE 57. PREPOSITIONS AND THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP), MODULE 58. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE, MODULE 59. SEMANTIC FEATURES OF THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE, MODULE 60. STRANDED PREPOSITIONS; DISCONTINUOUS PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

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Luyện Nghe Tiếng Anh Giao Tiếp Cơ Bản [Lesson 1-20]


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